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Monday, 19 September 2011

SYLLABUS OF AYURVEDACHARYA (BAMS) COURSE PROFESSIONAL 1st


.1 SANSKRIT

          Theory- Two Papers– 100 Marks Each
                                                                  Practical/ Viva voice – 50 Marks
                                                                                  Lectures               - 150

Paper I                                                                                    100 Marks
1. Vyakarana                                                                         
Sanjna, ach-sandhi, hal-sandhi,visarga sandhi,  Ajanta pullinga, Ajanta streelinga, Ajanta napunsklinga, halanta
pullinga, halanta streelinga, Halanta napunsalinga,avyaya prakaran, bhvadi-dashganah, nyanta-sannanta,
yannanta-yanluganta-atmnepada-parasmaipada-bhavakam
Karma-karti,lakartha prakriya, kridanta prakarana(kritya prakriya), Purvakridantam, unadaya,uttar-kridanta),
vibhaktyartha prakaran, samasa prakaran (keival samas, avyayi-bhavah, tatpurush, bahuvrihi,
dvanda,samasanta), tadvita prakarnani,streepratyaya prakaranam.
TEXT BOOK- laghu siddhanta kaumudi
2.  Translation 
1.    Translation from English / Hindi / regional language into Sanskrit
Or    Essay in Sanskrit related to ayurveda                    
     2 .Translation from Sanskrit to English, Hindi and Regional languages
          (Any desired language)                                                                                   

Reference Books
1. Anuvada Chandrika- Chakradhara Hansa Nautiyal
2. Sansrita Ayurveda Sudha- Dr B. L.gaur
3. Praudh Rachananuvada Kaumudi- Dr Kapil Dev Dwivedi
4. Concerned material from authorised texts of Ayurveda                                                           (for translation).

3. Corrections of mistakes - Matter may be selected from the Reference                                                    books.                              



Paper II                                                                           100 Marks
                                                                            
1.     Vaidya Sadvrittam                                                      

1. Vaidyakiya subhashitani (1-20 chapters)                                      
    By Bhaskar  Govinda  Ghanenkar                                       
2. Ayurveda Hitopdeshah
  (Vaidya Ranjit Rai  Desai)                                                   
         3. Panchatantram- Aprikshitkarkam                                         
                                   Or
         Verse from classics (brihatrayi) related to vaidya sadvritta
    2.  Order of reading classics (grantha-adhyayan krama parichaya)      
Pathana karma / sampradana parichaya, padavibhaga, arthanvaya karma, anvyartha, bhavartha,
dhvanitadi-prabhasana karma parichaya Samastapada sarthak-vigraha, dhatu-dhatvartha,
pratyaya-pratyartha, subanta-tivanta-adi according to padavidhi (anvayartha smarthanane) nirupanam.

Material for practice
   SushrutSamhita-SharirSthan-chapter-4      (garbhavyakarana sharirm).




1.2. PADARTH VIGYAN
          Theory- Two Papers– 100 Marks Each
                                                                  Practical/ Viva voice – 50 Marks
                                                                                  Lectures               - 150
                                                           Practicals and Demonstration      - 30

                                                              
Paper I                                                                                      100 Marks

1.1   Ayurveda Nirupana

  Definition and lakshana of ayu, composition of ayu; definition and lakshana of  
  Ayurveda; definition and types of siddhanta; introduction of basic principles of
  Ayurveda and their significance.

1.2   Ayurveda darshana nirupana

Philosophical background of fundamentals of ayurveda, meaning of the word “ darsan” and its omnipresence;
evolution of darsana, their Numbers and classification; general introductions of schools of Indian  Philosophy with  an emphasis on nyaya, vaisheshik and sankhya Darsana. Ayurveda as unique and independent school of thought (philosophical individuality of ayurveda), definition of padartha, lakshana of padartha. Division and number of padarthas; bhava and abhava padartha; charak’s opinion regarding these; introduction & description of   karana-padarthas mentioned by charak.


 2. Dravya Vigyaniyam

Definition, lakshana and number of dravya, panchabhutas; origin of panchamahabhuta, parasparanupravesha (mutual conglomeration), types of panchikaran; lakshana and types of prithvi, lakshana and types of tejas; lakshan and types of jala ,lakshana and types of vayu, lakshan of akasha and its aupadhika types; kala nirupana, etymological derivation, definition and lakshana of the word ‘kala’; aupadhik types of kala, significance of kala in ayurveda; dig-nirupanam, significance of dig and aupadhik types, lakshana of atma, description of purusha mentioned in ayurveda-     Ativahika purusha/ sukshma sharir/ rashi purusha/ chikitsiya purusha/ karma purusha/ saddhatvatmak purusha, initiation of atma towards perception of  knowledge (atmanahjnana pravritti), mano nirupanam; lakshana,synonyms of manas, mana as substratam of diseases(manasah vyadhyashryatram); guna (qualities), Vishaya (subject), karma (functions), ubhayaindriyatva and seat of mana; contribution of panchamahabhuta and triguna in physical  constitution(dehaprakriti) and mental faculty;  disapproval of dravyatva of tamas, practical study/application of dravya in ayurveda.      

     
 3. Guna Vigyaniyam

 Etymological derivation, definition and number of gunas, vaisesika guna     
 (sartha)- shabda,  sparsha, rupa,  rasa,  gandha;   adhyatma  gunah- budhi,
 Sukha,   dukha, ichha, dwesa, prayatna; paradi guna, gurvadi guna- their      
 introduction and clinical application.


4. Karma Vigyaniyam

  Definition, lakshana and types of karma, types of karma mentioned in nyaya,
  Description of karma in ayurveda, practical study/ application of karma in
  Ayurveda.


  5. Samanya Vigyaniyam

  Definition, lakshan, types of samanya, practical study/ application of samanya
  in reference to dravya, guna and karma.

  6. Vishesha Vigyaniyam
   
  Definition, lakshna and types of   vishesa, detailed    description   of the verse
  “pravrittirubhayasyata”, practical study of  vishesa for clinical   application   in
  Ayurveda.

  7. Samavaya Viyaniyam

  Definition  and lakshana of samavaya, practical study of samavaya for clinical   
  application in ayurveda.

  8. Abhava Vigyaniyam

  Definition and lakshana of abhav padartha, classification of abhav- description  
  of pragbhava, pradhwansabhava, atyantabhava, anyuanyabhav; clinical  
  significance of abhava in ayurveda.








Paper II                                                                                        100 Marks

Praman/ Pariksha Vigyaniyam (Epistemology)


1.           Pariksha nirupana (means of getting  knowledge)

Definition , significance and necessity of pariksha. Two types of anubhav-prama and aprama. Lakshan and types of prama and prameya. Lakshna, causes and types of smriti(memory). Significance and importance of praman. Enumeration of pramana according to different school of philosophy. Four types of methods of examination according to ayurveda (chaturvidha pariksha vidhi). Pramana in ayurveda. Incorporation of different pramans into three pramans. Use of word pariksha in reference to pramana in classics of ayurveda. Practical  application of methods of examination ( pariksha vidhi) in treatment (chikitsa).

2.   Aptopdesha pariksha/ pramana nirupana (Authoritative instruction/ spiritual testimony)

Definition of aptopdesha, lakshana of apta, lakshana of sabda, and its types, sabdavritti - abhidha, lakshana, vyanjana, tatparyakhya; shaktigraha hetu, vyakya Characteristic ; vakyartha jnanahetu- akanksha, yogyata, sannidhi.

3.   Pratyaksha pariksha/ pramana nirupana (direct observation or perception)
       
definition and lakshana of pratyaksha. Types of origin of pratyaksha jnana. Types of pratyaksha- nirvikalpak- savikalpaka with description; description of  laukika and alaukika types and their further classification. Sannikarsa  Characteristic, six types of sannikarsa, characteristics of sense organs(indriyanam Characteristic  lakshanam). Classification of Indriya and enumeration. Description of panchapanchaka, establishment of origin of Indriya by panchamahabhuta (bhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (tulyayonitva) of Indriya. Dominance of antahkaran. Hindrances indirect perception (pratyaksha anuplabdhikaran), detailed description of direct perception (pratyaksha) by various instruments/ equipments; necessity of other pramans in addition to pratyaksha. Practical study/ application of pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and research grounds.

4.   Anumana pariksha/pramana nirupanam (inference)

Definition and lakshan of anuman. Introduction of anumiti, paramarsha, vyapti, hetu, sadhya, paksha, dristanta etc.    Types of anuman mentioned by Charak Samhita & nyaya darsana. Characteristic and types of vyapti, Characteristic and types of hetu, description of ahetu and hetwabhasa. Characteristic  and significance of tarka. Practical study/ application of anumana pramana in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and research grounds.

5.   Yukti pariksha/ pramana (epistemology of reasoning)

Definition and lakshana of yukti pariksha, discussion on yukti pramana. Importance & characteristic  of yukti pariksha in ayurveda. Practical study and utility of yukti pariksha in therapeutics and research.

6.   Upamana pramana nirupanam(analogy)

Definition and lakshana of upamana. Application of upamana in therapeutics and research

7.   Karya- Karan siddhanta nirupanam (cause and effect theory)

Definition and lakshana of karya and karana. Types of karan. Significance of karya and karan in ayurveda. Different opinions regarding manifestation of karya from karan- satkaryavada, asatkaryavada, parinam vada, arambhavad, paramanuvada, vivartavada, kshanabhangurvada, pilupaka, pitharpaka, anekantavada, swabhavoparamvada.

8. Srishti-nirupanam  

Srishti-laya nirupanam (evolution and devastation of universe), Description of tatvotpatti, Tatva-nirupanam, classification of tatva. Evolution of universe (life) according to charak, sushruta (srishti-vikaskrama); Ashtaprakriti, Shodashvikara and their description. Similarity and dissimilarity between kshetra-kshetragya, vyakta-avyakta, prakriti-purush. Triguna nirupanam, Description of theories of rebirth and salvation (punarjanma & moksha)

9.Shastrartha Bodhaka  

Shastra Lakshana, tantra guna, tantra dosha, detailed description of tantrayukti, Brief description of tachhilya and arthashrya.


Practical                                                                                         50 Marks   

Allotted Assignment Marks – 10
Spotting   – 10     
Viva voice – 30                                                                          

1.           Panchabhautika nirupanam of karya dravya and their introduction.
2.           Examination of bhautika / samanya guna and introduction.
3.           Examination of physical constitution composed by panchamahabhuta                
(panchbhautika deha prakriti) and mental temperament composed by triguna (Trigunatmka manas prakriti).
4.           Exposition or display of process of indriyarth sannikarsha in establishment
of dravya and roga (dravya and rogavinishchaya).
5.           Importance / significance of pariksha / pramana in examination of dravya,
rog and rogi. (disease and patient).
6.           Allotment of practical work according to syllabus.

1.3       AYURVED KA ITIHAS (History of Ayurveda)


Theory- One Paper - 100 Marks
                  Lectures                       - 60                                                                                                                 
         
1.   Etymological derivation (vyutpatti), syntactical derivation (niruktti) and definition of the word itihas, necessity of knowledge of history, its significance and utility.  means and method of gaining knowledge viz. historical person (vyakti), subject (vishaya), time period, (kala), happening (ghatna) and their impact on ayurveda.

2.   Decent of Ayurveda, chronology of ayurveda according to different schools, introduction of eight branches of ayurveda and concerned renowned texts. Introduction of the authors of  these texts.

3.   Eternity of ayurveda (shashvatvam and anaditavam).

4.   Status of ayurveda in Vedic period, progression of ayurveda upto tantra kala. Knowledge about available topics of ayurveda in puranas and tantras etc.

5.   Introduction of authors of classical texts during Samhita kala and their contribution especially Atreya, Dhanwantri, Kashyapa, Agnivesha, Sushruta, Bhela, Harita, Charaka, Dridhbala, Vagbhatta, Nagarjuna, Jivaka – introduction and contribution.

6.   Chronological development of charaka samhita, sushruta samhita and kashyapa samhita.

7.   Introduction and establishment of time period of commentators of classical samhitas – bhattar harishchandra, Jejjata, Chakrapani, Dalhana, Nishchalakara, vijayarakshita, Gayadas, Arundatta, Hemadri, Gangadhara, Yonginderanath sen, Haranchandra Chakravorty.

8.   Introduction and time period of authors of compendium (granthasamgraha kala) – Acharya Bhavmishra, Sharangdhara, Vrinda, madhavkara, Shodhala, Govind Das (Author of bhaisjya ratnawali), Vasavraja etc.

9.   Origin of ras shastra and its development, introduction and time period of promoters of ras shastra.

10.        Vrikshayurveda vijnana (Ayurveda for plant kingdom), pashu chikitsa vijnana (ayurveda for animal kingdom), promoters of ashva, gaja chikitsa Vijnana; shalihotra, palkapya, varahmir, nakula, ashvaghosh.

11.        Introduction of authors of modern era –Gan Nath sen, Yamimi bhushan, Yadavji tikramji acharya, Ghanekar, Damodar Sharma Gaur, Priyavrat Sharma, Swami Laksmiram, Dr. P. M. Mehta, Daji Shastri Pade etc.
12.        Globlaisation of ayurveda – Sumera, Babilonia, Asiria, Misra (Egypt), China, Persia, Arabia, Kamobja, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Thailand, Mauritius, Myanmar (Burma) etc. – expansion of ayurveda in above mentioned civilisations.

13.        Impact of ayurveda on Hippocratus (Father of Allopathy), Invitation to Indian physicians by yavans and translation of ayurvedic text into Arabian language, visit to Greece by Indian scholars, relation between Greece and india in ancient period (made by Alexandar), expansion of ashvavaidyaka in Greece.

14.        Developmental actions for ayurveda in post-independence period, development in educational trends, establishment of different committee,  their recommendations, central council of Indian medicine, central council for research and ayurveda and siddha, foundation of department of AYUSH, its introduction and activities, drug and cosmetic act, Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia Committee  formation and activities of organisations and institutions like Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeta etc. Activities in field of research in ayurveda according to different subjects. Initiation for writing down a text, different councils of vaidya and their activities.

Publications of Ayurveda journals and magazines, WHO, status of Ayurveda on international grounds in present era.
1.4  ASHTANGA HRIDAYAM (SUTRASTHAN)
                                                                                                                                                Theory –one paper – 100 Marks 
                                                                                                                                                Practical /viva voice -50 Marks 
                                                                                                                                                                Lectures             - 60
For the convenience of learning allotted marks for sutrasthan of Ashtanga
 Hridaya has been divided in to following two groups:
Thorough study                                                                                                                                                                                86 Marks
Introductory study                                                                                                                                                                          14 Marks
• Chapters specified for thorough study 
Chapter First to Tenth and Fourteenth (1-10&14)                                                                                                                  44 Marks
Chapter eleventh to thirteenth (11-13)                                                                                                                                  15 Marks
Chapter sixteen to Twenty (16-20)                                                                                                                                           20 Marks
Twenty –seventh (27) and Thirtieth (30) chapters                                                                                                             7 Marks
• Chapters specified for introductory study 
Chapter Fifteenth (15)                                                                                                                                                                   04 Marks
Chapter Twenty Two to Twenty Six & Twenty Eight &                                                                                                     10 Marks
Twenty ninth (22-26 & 28 & 29 )
• Fifth marks assigned for practical exam are distributed as follows
  1. For chart framing /compilation                                                                                                                                   10 Marsks
  2. Recitation & writing of minimum ten shlokas among                                                                                        10 Marks
Memorized shlokas (The Shlokas should be memorized along with padavibhaga,
Anvaya ,Bhavabrtha and practical applicability .)
  1. Viva-voce                                                                                                                                                                            15 Marks
  2. Internal assessment                                                                                                                                                       15 Marks
Topics for chart
Ayurvedavatarna according to Ashtanga Hridaya ,Ashtanha of Ayurveda ,Agni , Prakriti, Koshtha ,tridosh  rasa-guna-virya Vipaka and prabhave of dravyas ,ritucharya, dinacharya vega-udirana  and vidharana ,chatuspada of chikitsa sandhyasadhyata ,differebt classification of dravyas-toya ,Kshira,ikshu,etc.Shooka shimbi ,mamsa ,Shaka , Phala etc.Dosha Samshodhana kala, vriddhi-kshaya  lakshanas of dosha dhatu and malas,dosha according to ritu ,Viruddhahara ,traya Upastambha.

Parameters for internal Assessment (15 Marks)
 • Memorizing and describing two shlokas weekly discipline, oral and written presentation and other activites.
 Other activities include following instructions

  1. Memorizing two shlokas Weekly                                                                                                                      5 Marks
       (At least 40 Sholkas should be memorized as discussed above in a span of one year and six month)
2. Passage Writing                                                                                                                                                           5 Marks
3. Speech on any one topic related to Ashtanga hridaya                                                                                 5 Marks


                                                                Reference Books
Ashtabga Hridayam         :              Hindi Commentary by Lalchanda Vaidya
                                                :               English Commentary by K.R. Srikantanmurty      




1.5 RACHANA  SHARIR
Theory- Two Papers– 100 Marks Each
                                                            Practical/ Viva voice – 200 Marks
                                                              Lectures (1 hour)               - 210
      Practicals /Demonstration (1 ½ hour)    - 210
Paper I        100 Marks
Part A                                                                                         50 Marks
1.   Detailed description of principles of 'Sharir' and their co-relation with modern medical science.

2.   Shariropkrama

Description of Sharir and Sharir, knowledge and importance of Sharir and Sharir, 'Shadangatva' of sharir, Anga pratyanga vibhaga, Preservation and Dissection Method of dead body, Divisions of Sharir.

3.   Knowledge of terminologies used in Sharir

Detail knowledge of terms, position, and Planes e.g. Urdhava (Superior), Adhah (Inferior), Nikatastha (Proximal) and Doorastha (Distal), Agrima (Anterior or Ventral), Abhi pristha or Paschima (Posterior), Madhyanuga (Median), Parshava (Lateral). Abhimadhyana (Medial) and Uttana (Superficial) and Gambhira (Deep) section, Anuprastha (Vertical) and Agra paschedasa (Horizontal), Tiryaka (Oblique) sections, Mamsa peshi (Muscles), Sira, Dhamani, Tantrika, Snayu(Ligaments), Kurcha, Kandra (Tendon), Jala(Plexuses), Asthi Sanghat (Complex Joints), Seemanta (Sutures off  Skull), Rajju(Cords) and Sevani.

4.   Abhinivriti Sharir

Vyakta and Avyakta, kshetra and kshetraja
Constitution of 'Purusha' according to dhatu bheda, Panchabhoutikatva and sukshamatva of body, karma purusha, Trigunatamakatvama, Tridoshmayatvama, Doshadhatumalamulakatva of Sharir.

5.   Garbha Sharir (Embryology)

Definition of 'garbha' (embryo), 'Garbhottpadakbhava', Sukshma garbha sharir, micro anatomical describption of 'dhatu and avayavas' 'Shukra' Artava, Antahpushpa, Garbhadhana (fertilization) and Kosha vibhajana (Cell division),along with role of Tridosh and Panch mahabhut in fetal development, 'Bija'-(sperm and ovum), Bijabhaga, Bijabhagavayava and Genetics in Ayurveda.  Anuvamshika Siddhanta (principles of Hereditary), Linga bheda (Sex Determination), Masanumasika Garbha Virdhi Krama (month wise development of Fetus), Garbhavridhikara bhava, (factors effecting development and growth of embryo), Deha prakriti, Satwa prakriti' etc., Garbha poshana, Apra nirmana (formation of placenta), Nabhinadi nirmana (formation of umbilical cord), Ulva, Jarayu, Akritikara bhava, Matrapartantrata of garbha, Bhuta vyapara, formation of Stanya, Angapratyanga nirmana, Development of various systems. Developmental Anomalies and their causes (Ayurveda and Modern Views).

6.   Pramana Sharir:

Anthropometric -Values of body parts-
Anguli, anjali, pramana and Sankhya Sharir.

Part  B                                                                                              50 Marks
7.   Asthi Sharir (Osteology)

Number of bones (Charaka, Sushruta and Modern Concept), Asthi swaroopa and Asthi rachana (Structure and texture of bone), Detailed description of each bone - Ossification of bones, applied anatomy of each bone. 

8.   Sandhi Sharir (Arthrology)

(a) Definition of Sandhi (joints), Types, structure of each Asthi sandhi (joint), various, Specific description of 'Hanu' (temporomandibular) and Shakha sandhis (joints of extremities) vertebral joints, Definition of Asthi Sanghat, number and their applied value.  Sevani (Sutural Joints) Snayu (Ligaments), movements of Joints and Clinical importance of the Sandhis (joints).

9.   Sira, Dhamini, Srotas Sharir (Angiology)
(a) Sira-Dhamini
Importance of Raktavaha Sansthan (cardiovascular system),  Hridaya (Heart), Sira, Dhamani, Srotasa.  Definition of Sira, Dhamini, their course, branches Description of Arteries and capillary, Accessory veins and Principal veins.
(b) Srotas Sharir: 1. Definition, types, their mool and Srotodusti. 

10.   Lasika Samsthan (Lymphatic system)
Introduction and study of Lasika pranali (Lymphatic channels), Lasika granthi (Lymphatic glands), Rasa kulya (thoracic duct), Payasvini (lacteals) and Courses of lasika vahinis (Lymphatic Ducts).

11. Peshi Sharir (Myology)
Introduction and detail Structure, shape, size and types and their Importance of Peshi (muscles) - their attachments and origin, insertion, actions nerve supply and its clinical application. 

Paper         II                                                                              Total Marks: 100
Part A                                                                                               50 Marks

1.   Koshtha
Defining the terms like – Koshtha, Ashaya and Koshthanga, their names and location, koshthanga of Uraha Pradesh(thoracic cavity organs), Udara Pradesh Koshthanga (organs of abdominal cavity), Description of digestive organs and accessory digestive organs. Organs of Shwasa Prashwasa (Respiratory system), Organs of Mutravaha Sansthan (Urinary system), Description of male and female prajananang (reproductive organs) and their details.

2.   Granthi Sharir

Description of the structure of Bahya Srotas (Exocrine), and Nisrotasa granthi, details study of granthi Sharir.

3.   Kala Sharir

Definition of Kala, structural pattern and details study of each Kalas,  study of Vishista Kalas like, Hridyavaran (Pericardurm), Puppusavarana Kala (Plura), Mastiskavarana  kala (Maninges), Udaravarana Kala (Peritoneuam).

4.   Twak Sharir (Dermatology)

Definition of Twak (Skin), its swaroop (structure), types and prayojana.


Part B                                                                                     50 Marks

5.   Uttamangiya Tantrika Sansthan Sharir (Nervous System)

Introduction, Definition, classification and importance of Mastishka (Brain)- 1. Brihatamastishka (Cerebrum), 2. Laghumastishka (Cerebellum), 3. Madhyamastishka (Mid brain), 4. Usnishaka (Pons), 5. Sushumna Shirsha (medulla oblongata), Sushumana Khanda (Spinal cord) Sheershanya tantrika (Cranial Nerves) and Sushmaniya Tantrika (spinal Nerves), Parisarniya Tantrika (Peripheral nervous system). Description of Swatantra Nadi Samsthan (Autonomic nervous system), Anukampiya and Paranukampiya (Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system and nerve plexuses).

6.   Tantra Sharir (Neuro Anatomy)

Satchakra Ida, Pingala, Saraswati etc.


7.   Marma Sharir

Description of the term Marma, their numbers, locations, different types and their terminological values.  Importance of trimarmas Charaks & sushruta concept.

8.   Anga Rekhankana Sharir - (Surface, Radiological and Imaging Anatomy)

Anga Rekhankana (Surface marking), Vikirana Rachana Sharir (Radiological Anatomy).

9.   Indriya  Sharir: (Sensory organs)

Derivation of the word Indriya, its number, Description of Panch Gyanendriya, Panch Karmendriya and Ubhayendriya (Mana). Description of the Eye, Ear, Nose, tongue, Skin and Indriya Adhisthan.


Practical

     Pratyakshika Vishaya (Practical topics)

1.   Shava Samskarana and Mruta Shodhana (Dead Body Preservation and Dissection).
2.   Shavachchedana - Dissection of whole body.
3.   Sampurna Asthi Pradarshana - Demonstration of all bones, Practical demonstration of Komala Avayava (Macro and Microscopic structures of organs) and Koshtanga (Abdominal organs). 
4.   Practical knowledge of Anga Rekhankana, surface anatomy, Sharir Vikirana Radiographic.

  Distribution of Practical Marks                                  200 Marks
1.   Knowledge of the dissected organs.                                           25 marks
2.    Knowledge of the delicate organs.                                   25 marks
3.   Knowledge of bones.                                                        25 marks
4.   Knowledge of Marmas.                                                      25 marks
5.   Surface Anatomy, Diagrams and Practical records.                     25 marks
6.   Daily dissection of Log Book                                             25 marks
7.   Spotting                                                                           25 marks
8.   Oral (Viva-voce)                                                               25 marks

1.6. KRIYA SHARIR
                        Theory- Two Papers– 100 Marks Each
                                                            Practical/ Viva voice – 100 Marks
                                                              Lectures (1 hour)               - 210
      Practicals and Demonstration (1 ½ hour)    - 90

Paper I                                                                                           100 Marks

Part A                                                                                               50 Marks

  1. Conceptual study of fundamental principles of Ayurvediya Kriya Sharir e.g. Panchamahabhuta, Tridosha, Triguna, Loka-Purusha Samya, Samanya Vishesha, Rasa-Virya-Vipaka etc. Description of Basics of Srotasas.
  2. Definitions and Synonyms of term ‘Sharir’, Definitions and Synonyms of term ‘Kriya’, Srishti Utpatti and its adaptation in generation of Shareera, Factors responsible for Srishti Utpatti, Difference and similarities between Prakriti and Purusha, Study of components of Purusha and in context to numerical variations (Purushabheda), Role of Shatdhatupurusha in Kriya Sharir and Chikitsa
  3. Dosha – General introduction of dosha, Classification of Doshas into ‘Sharir dosha and Manasa dosha’, ‘Prakrit dosha and Vaikrit dosha, Criteria for ‘dosha’, Doshagati, Criteria for differentiation of types of dosha (doshabheda).
a.    Vata dosha – Vyutpatti (derivation), Utpatti, Nirukti (etymology) of term ‘Vata’, General locations, general properties and general functions of Vata, Five types of Vata with their specific locations, specific properties, and specific functions (Prana, Udana, Samana, Vyana, Apana)
b.    Pitta dosha – Vyutpatti, Utpatti, Nirukti of term ‘Pitta’, General locations, general properties and general functions of Pitta, Five types of Pitta with their specific locations, specific properties, and specific functions (Pachaka, Ranjaka, Alochaka, Bhrajaka, Sadhaka); Similarities and differences between Agni and Pitta
c.    Kapha dosha- Vyutpatti, Utpatti, Nirukti of term ‘kapha’, General locations, general properties and general functions of kapha, Five types of kapha with their specific locations, specific properties, and specific functions (Bodhaka, Avalambaka, Kledaka, Tarpaka, Shleshaka)
d.   Etiological factors responsible for Vriddhi-Kshaya of each dosha and manifestations of Vriddhi-Kshaya of each dosha
e.    Kriyakala of dosha in view point of Charaka, Sushruta and Vagbhata and its clinical importance.
4.     a. Deha-Prakriti – Vyutpatti, Utpatti, Nirukti, various definitions and synonyms for term ‘Prakriti’, intra-uterine factors responsible for genesis of Prakriti, extra-uterine factors influencing Deha-Prakriti, classification of Deha-Prakriti, characteristics of each kind of Deha-Prakriti, clinical significance of Deha-Prakriti, Anukatva
      b. Manasa-Prakriti – classification, characteristics clinical significance.  
    5.   Modern Physiology

  1. Basic principles of biochemistry. Study of basic componants of food. Biochemical structure, properties, classification of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Vitamins – sources, daily requirement, functions, manifestations of hypo and hyper-vitaminosis. Biochemical study of enzymes.
  2. Definition and mechanisms of maintenance of Homeostasis. Cell Physiology. Membrane Physiology. Resting membrane potential and action potential.
  3. Physiology of Respiratory system: Functional anatomy of respiratorysystem. Definition of ventilation. Mechanism of respiration. Exchangeand transportation of gases. Neural and chemical control of respiration.Spirometry and lung function tests. Artificial respiration.
  4. Physiology of Cardio-Vascular system: Functional anatomy of cardiovascular system. Properties of cardiac muscles. Cardiac cycle. Heart sounds. Regulation of cardiac output and venous return. Physiological basis of ECG. Heart-rate and its regulation. Arterial pulse. Systemic arterial blood pressure and its control. Regional circulations. Physiology of lymphatic circulation.
  5. Modern view of somato-types, biological personality and psychological
          traits of an individual.

Part B                                                                                               50 Marks                       
  1. Shareera-Poshana
  1. 1. Ahara – definition and significance of ahara, classification of ahara-dravya, ahara-vidhi-vidhana, Ashta-ahara-vidhi-visheshayatana, ahara-parinamakara bhava
  2. Agni – Conceptual study of Agni, Vyutpatti, Nirukti, Synonyms of term ‘Agni’, classification of Agni, Location-properties and functions of Jatharagni, Bhutagni, and Dhatwagni role of Agni in Kriya Sharira and Chikitsa
  3. Ahara-paka-prakriya – physiology of related organs (Maha-srotas), avasthapaka, nishthapaka, Maha-srotas-pachana kriya,  sara-kitta vibhajana, saranushoshana and genesis of Vatadi dosha during ahara-pachana
  4. Definition of term ‘Koshtha’, criteria of classification of Koshtha and characteristics of each kind of Koshtha
2.   Modern physiology 
a.    Functional anatomy of gastro-intestinal tract. Descriptive physiology of digestion and absorption in gastro-intestinal tract. Mechanism of secretion and composition of different digestive juices.

Paper II                                                                                         100 Marks
Part A                                                                                              50 Marks
1.  Dhatu
 General introduction, definition and criteria of dhatu, Utpatti (during garbhavastha and janmottara kala), Vyutpatti, Nirukti of term ‘dhatu’; different theories related to dhatuposhana, (dhatuposhana nyaya)
i) Rasa Dhatu
Vyutpatti, Nirukti, sthan,  guna, karma, pramana of Rasa Dhatu. Physiology of Rasavaha Srotasa, Formation of Rasa Dhatufrom Ahara Rasa. Circulation of Rasa (Rasa-Samvahana), Description of Ashtavidha Sara (8 types of Sara). Characteristics of Twakasara Purusha. Conceptualstudy of Mutual interdependence (ashraya-ashrayi bhava) between Rasa and Kapha. Manifestations of Kshaya and Vriddhi of Rasa.
ii) Raktadhatu  
Vyutpatti, Nirukti, synonyms, sthan,  guna, karma and pramana of Rakta dhatu; panchabhautikatva of Rakta Dhatu, physiology of Raktavaha Srotas, Formation of Raktadhatu, Ranjana of Rasa by Ranjaka Pitta, Features of Shuddha Rakta, Specific functions of Rakta, characteristics of Raktasara Purusha; manifestations  of Kshaya and Vriddhi of Raktadhatu, Mutual interdependence between Rakta and Pitta.

iii) Mamsadhatu        
Vyutpatti, Nirukti, synonyms, sthan, guna, karma and pramana of mamsa dhatu, Physiology of Mamsavaha Srotasa, Formation of Mamsadhatu, characteristics of Mamsasara Purusha, manifestations of Kshaya and Vriddhi of Mamsadhatu.
iv) Medo Dhatu
Vyutpatti, Nirukti, sthan, guna, karma and pramana of medodhatu, physiology of Medovaha Srotas, formation of Medo dhatu, characteristics of  Medosara Purusha and manifestations of Kshaya and Vriddhi of Meda.
v) Asthi Dhatu
Vyutpatti, Nirukti, synonyms, sthan, guna, karma of Asthi dhatu; Physiology of Asthivaha Srotas and formation of Asthi dhatu, characteristics of Asthisara Purusha, Mutual interdependence of Vata and Asthi dhatu, manifestations  of Kshaya and Vriddhi of Asthi dhatu.
vi) Majja Dhatu
Vyutpatti, Nirukti, types, sthan, guna, karma and pramana of Majja Dhatu, physiology of Majjavaha Srotas, formation of Majja dhatu, characteristics of Majja Sara Purusha, Rakta-Pitta-Majja relation, manifestations of Kshaya and Vriddhi of Majja dhatu.
vii) Shukra Dhatu
Vyutpatti, Nirukti, sthan, guna, karma and pramana of Shukra dhatu, physiology of Shukravaha srotas and formation of Shukra dhatu; features of Shuddha and Dushita Shukra, characteristics of Shukrasara Purusha, manifestations  of Kshaya and Vriddhi of Shukra dhatu.
2. Ojas
Vyutpatti, Nirukti, synonyms, definition, utpatti sthan, guna, karma and pramana of Ojas,  classification of Oja (Ojobheda), conceptual study of Vyadhikshamatva; Bala vrudhikara bhava, Balabheda, Relation between shleshma, bala and ojas; Etiological factors and manifestatioins of   Oja kshaya, Visramsa and Vyapat; physiological and clinical significance of OjaVayasthapana
3. Upadhatu
  1. General introduction, Vyutpatti and Nirukti of the term ‘Upadhatu’. Utpatti, Poshan, Samkha, Praman, Guna, Sthan and Karma of Upadhatu.
  2. Stanya –Nirukti, definition, utpatti guna karma, praman of Stanya; characteristics and assessment of shuddh and dushita Stanya, manifestations of Vriddhi and kshaya of Stanya
  3. Artava –Nirukti, definition, Utpatti, guna karma of Artava, characteristics of shuddha and dushita Artava, difference between Raja and Artava, physiology of Artavavaha srotas and Artavachakra
  4. Tvak – Utpatti, Nirukti, guna, Praman, karma and bheda.  Layer wise diseases of Tvak.


4.  Modern physiology

  1. Haemopoetic system – composition, functions of blood and blood cells, Haemopoiesis- (stages and development of RBCs, WBCs and platelets); Introduction to bone marrow: composition and functions of bone marrow. Structure and functions of haemoglobin, mechanism of blood clotting, anticoagulants, study of platelets, physiological basis of blood groups, principles of blood transfusion, plasma proteins- synthesis and functions. Applied physiology: anaemia, jaundice. Basics of Immunity – Classification and Mechanisms. Hypersensitivity. Physiological basis of immunization.
  2. Muscle physiology – comparative study of physiology of skeletal muscles, cardiac muscles and smooth muscles. Physiology of muscle contraction.
  3. Physiology of adipose tissue, lipo proteins like VLDL, LDL and HDL.
  4. Calcium metabolism: hormonal control of calcium metabolism. Functions of vitamin D, parathormone and calcitonin. Bone and teeth.
  5. Structure and functions of skin, sweat glands and sebaceous glands.
  6. Physiological study of male and female reproductive systems. Spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Hormonal regulation of menstrual cycle.
      Physiology of pregnancy and lactation.

Part B                                                                                               50 Marks
1. Mala - Vyutpatti, Nirukti of term ‘mala’; General introduction of Mala, Utpatti    (during garbhavastha and janmottara kala),
2. Aharamala – Enumeration and formation of Aharamala
a.    Mutra –Vyutpatti, Nirukti, praman, sthan, guna, karma, and physiology of Mutravaha srotas; formation of Mutra, manifestations of Vriddhi and Kshaya of Mutra
b.    Purisha –Vyutpatti, Nirukti, praman, sthan, guna, karma, and physiology of Purishavaha srotas; formation of Purisha, manifestations of Vriddhi and Kshaya of Purisha
3Sweda –Vyutpatti, Nirukti, praman, sthan, guna, karma, and physiology of Swedavaha srotas; formation of Sweda, manifestations of Vriddhi and Kshaya of Sweda
4. Dhatu mala – Utpatti, Nirukti, sthan, guna karma, samkhya, praman of each dhatu mala; etiological  factors and clinical manifestations of each dhatu mala
5. Panchajnyanendriya – Physiological study of Panchajnyanendriya, and physiology of Shabda, Sparsha, Roopa, Rasa, Gandha. Process of Dnyana-grahana; Indriya-pancha-panchaka; Physiological study of Karmendriya.
6. Manas – Utpatti, Vyutpatti, Nirukti, synonyms, swaroopa, sthan, guna, vishaya, karma of Manas, and physiology of Manovaha srotas; physiological and clinical significance of Manas
7. Atma –Nirukti, definition, sthan, guna, karma, and difference between Paramatma and Jeevatma; characteristics of existence of Atma
8Buddhi – Sthan, prakara, karma of Buddhi; Physiology of dhee, dhriti and smriti
7Nidra – Nidrotpatti, Nidrabheda, physiological and clinical significance of Nidra; Swapnotpatti and Swapnabheda
8.  Modern physiology
a.    General introduction to nervous system – neurons, mechanism of propagation of nerve impulse, physiological study of CNS, PNSANS; physiological study of sensory and motor functions of nervous system. Functions of different parts of brain - Cerebral cortex, Hypothalamus, Limbic system, Midbrain, Pons, Medulla and Cerebellum. Physiology of special senses. Intelligence, Memory, Learning and Motivation. Physiology of sleep and dreams. Physiology of speech and articulation; EEG. Physiology of temperature regulation.

b.    Endocrine glands – General introduction to endocrine system,classification and characteristics of hormones, physiological study of all endocrine glands and their hormones.

c.     Urinary tract physiology – Functional anatomy of urinary tract. Functions of kidneys. Mechanism of formation of urine. Control of micturition.Renal function tests.

PRACTICAL
A) Ayurvedic practical
1.       Assessment of Dosha (Vriddhi kshaya lakshana)
2.       Assessment of Dhatu – a. Sharirbala
                                b. Manasabala
3.       Assessment of Mala –
a.    Examination of Mala by Shabda, Sparsha, Roopa Rasa and Gandha
b.    Mutra (taila bindu pareeksha)
c.    Purisha  (jale nimajjati pareeksha)
4.       Assessment of Vaya
5.       Anguli pariksha
6.       Assessment of Ayu in Charaka-Samhita
7.       Assessment of Agni
8.       Assessment of Koshtha
9.       Assessment of Prakriti
10.    Assessment of Sara
11.    Satmya Pariksha
12.    Nadi pariksha
13.    Stanya pariksha

B) Modern practical
1.   Use and care of compound microscope
2.   Types, uses and care of balances
3.   Collection of blood sample – prick, venepuncture method and bulbs, apparatus for collection
4.   Preparation of blood film and staining
5.   Hemoglobinometry
6.   Microscopic  examination of blood
a.    RBC count
b.    WBC count
c.    Differential leucocyte count
7.   Packed cell volume(PCV) demonstration
8.   ESR demonstration
9.   Bleeding time
10.                Clotting time
11.                Blood grouping and Rh typing
12.                Examination of Cardio-Vascular system 
a.    Pulse examination
b.    Arterial blood pressure measurement
c.    Examination of heart sounds by stethoscope
d.   ECG demonstration
13.                Examination of Respiratory system
a.    Respiratory rate
b.    Air entry with the stethoscope
c.    Spirometry
14.                Examination of CNS – Reflexes
15.                Urine examination – Collection of urine, physical examination, chemical examination and microscopic examination.
Test for normal constituents of urine
Following chemical examinations for abnormal constituents are expected
a.    albumin test
b.    sugar test
c.    acetone bodies
d.   bile salts and pigment
e.    occult blood
16.                 Stool examination – Collection of stool, physical examination, chemical examination and microscopic examination
17.                Examination of semen
18.                 Measurement of body temperature
19.                 Study of instruments related to physiology practicals.

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